Pepper Cultivation In Kerala

Pepper prices, for instance, fell to Rs 300 per kilogram from the highs of Rs 800 per kilogram. Kerala and Karnataka account for a major portion of production of black pepper in the country. Kerala Centre for Pest Management (KCPM) KCPM is the Pest Surveillance Unit under the Department of Agriculture established in the year. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper, producing 34% of the world's crop, as of 2013. Biju Narayanan, returned to farming 10 years ago after working as a mechanical engineer for some years. Ethical farming practices lead to matchless quality in raw produce. Annually, it is grown with 69,000 tonnes of production in 2,46,000 hectares of land. Keralities (the people of Kerala) are know for their harmony and temperaments among themselves. Victor and I were able to visit them in 2001. Find the best Pepper in Kerala. of INDIA is manufacturing from a vide variety of spices herbs and aromatics plants. So, the profits from pepper offset the volatility of the coffee crop. The state accounted for around 94. Enjayes Spices & Chemical Oils Ltd is the brain child of an adventurous team of Enjayes men. These spices grown in Kerala have been world famous from ancient times, especially the black pepper of Kerala. In fact, Kerala contributes 97 per cent of the total black pepper production in the country. Business listings of Black Pepper manufacturers, suppliers and exporters in Palakkad, Kerala along with their contact details & address. Major pepper producing states are Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu. The state of Kerala, located in the southwestern corner of the Indian Peninsula, came into existence in 1956. Although the pepper plant had its origin in India, a large demand for the spice has necessitated commercial cultivation in several parts of South-East Asia as well. Black pepper popularly known as ‘King of spices’ or ‘Black gold’, is a perennial vine. According to Spices Board, export of Indian pepper in 2012-13 came down by 40 per cent compared to the previous year. The floods were just the final blow to farmers who were already reeling under crashing prices. Occupation in Kerala : Agriculture is the state's main economic activity. I am growing him in a tall hexagon tank so I can control the temp and humidity for him because I'm from Michigan and, if you didn't know, it's friggin cold here. Under cultivation pepper vines are trailed over support as columns, 5-6 mtr tall, 1-2 meter diameter. Windbreaks Increase Cow Comfort While Lowering Energy Needs Livestock. At an average height of 3500 feet, the estate is the largest perennial multi-crop Organic Farm in India,growing certified , Organic Tea, Coffee (Arabica and Robusta ) with. Civil Station Idukki The District Headquarters of Idukki is Located at Kuyilimala near Cheruthony. Ones left to ripen to a pleasing and flavoursome red colour will suppress more fruit production,. Even a country like South Korea has more than 21,000 ha. A pepper tree branch in kerala india. Genomic library construction & cloning of gene(s) for PR proteins in black pepper. Cook for 2 -3 minutes. The state is growing tropical and exotic fruits such as Purple Passion fruit, Rambuttan, Pulasan, Loquat, Persimmon, Burmese grape and Maprang fruit. Serving the soil of its origins, every pack tells the story of the forests with an aroma of goodness. The state is growing tropical and exotic fruits such as Purple Passion fruit, Rambuttan, Pulasan, Loquat, Persimmon, Burmese grape and Maprang fruit. Kerala is known as the land of spices as it has the perfect climate to support the cultivation of spices like pepper, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, turmeric etc. Black-pepper 3. In India, Kerala is the main producer of pepper. 3 per cent of total pepper production during 2010-11. Kerala Centre for Pest Management (KCPM) KCPM is the Pest Surveillance Unit under the Department of Agriculture established in the year. PDS Organic spices is a unit of Peermade Development Society (PDS), a social service organisation of Catholic Diocese of Kanjirappally. With inputs from the harvested crop to be grown up to 25 m apart. Black Pepper is the dried mature berry of Piper nigrum, a climbing, perennial shrub mostly found in hot, moist region of Southern India. ) cultivars were evaluated for yield and yield-contributing characters (including spike length,. Agriculture contributes 17% towards the nation's Gross Value Added (GVA). from 6 am to 10 pm seven days a week. Black pepper growing on the vinew in Kerala. Pothamedu view point gives lofty overlook with a tea plantation, offering panoramas of the valley landscape. Pepper gave these countries a huge profit. North and South Kanara, Coorg, Shimoga, Chickmagalur and Hassan districts of Karnataka, and Kanyakumari and the Nilgiri districts in Tamil Nadu are major producers. 6% of the population is engaged in agriculture and allied pepper processing activities. 5 lakh farm families are involved in pepper cultivation. National Programme for Organic Production; Development. Key industry sectors include education and healthcare services. Farmers can subscribe to a free service by calling up at the Kisan Call Centre (KCC), which is run by the Union agriculture ministry in collaboration with state agriculture departments, on toll free number 1800-180-1551. It is grown in Kerala in large numbers and is also known as 'black gold'. Find here Black Pepper suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, traders with Black Pepper prices for buying. The Chinese explorer Tcheou Ta Kouan recorded Cambodian pepper cultivation as early as the 13th century. Seeds are sown in the nursery and one-month-old seedlings are transplanted to the main field. Once removed, cut the flesh in half and remove the capsicum's white, seeded pith. The perennial pepper creepers grew in people's backyards on areca and coconut palms, mango trees and jackfruit trees. It is popularly known as the king of spices and mainly cultivated in the southern parts of India, comprising of states Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Pondicherry. The Zion Mundi black pepper variety is high yielding, resistant to rot and exhibits its high yielding characters even under shade cultivation. At a meeting ICEX held with the black pepper traders, it was suggested that the trading lot and delivery unit of pepper contracts be changed from 100 kg to 1 tonne. KERALA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY- PACKAGES OF PRACTICE. Some also call it Mouse/Rat droppings. Pepper is the saviour for many coffee, arecanut and coconut growers in Karnataka now. Coffee Although Brazil commands the Top Spot for Coffee globally, India has been a major player in this commodity. Though an annual rainfall of 250 cm is ideal for the proper growth of the crop, it can also come up well in low rainfall areas, if the pattern and distribution of rainfall are conducive. Two decades back, Kerala accounted for 95 percent of domestic production with Karnataka contributing about two percent and the rest came from Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Maharashtra. India holds a supreme position in the production of pepper. Photo about Fresh green leaves pepper (Piper Nigrum) growing on the tree tea plantation in India, Kerala. Coffee, Pepper, Cardamom, Clove, Nutmeg, Areca nut, Coconut, Ginger, Turmeric are some of the important crops cultivated in our farms. India is also a big exporter of Chilli, turmeric, cumin, pepper and many other spices. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Black pepper growing on the vinew in Kerala. However, land-use changes, availability of agricultural labour, and falling commodity prices are major constraints in homestead farming in Kerala. Over 75 cultivars of pepper are being cultivated in India. The move assumes importance when statistics show that Brazil, where the Portugese cultivated pepper taken from Kerala, now yields 3000 kg per hectare while our own production is somewhere at 476. The Centre located at Mankombu in Alappuzha District of Kerala is functioning with the aim of making farmers aware of need based plant protection activities. In Kerala, many farmers who have switched from conventional to organic farming are reaping financial and other benefits. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the Lire la suite . 9 Area under Pepper Cultivation The area under pepper cultivation in Kerala in 2005-06 stood at 2,37,998 hectares. Born on 1863 august 28 Place : Venganoor (Thiruvananthapuram) Childhood name - KaliFrom Pulaya familyKnown as Pulaya Raja ( title given by Gandhiji) The historian P. It is popularly known as the king of spices and mainly cultivated in the southern parts of India, comprising of states Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Pondicherry. They decided to start growing pepper as Kerala is the most famous growing area in the world for this incredible spice. were also observed by Jayasree et al (3). Kerala based farmer society encourages organic farming. He has implemented the column method cultivation with the help of Mallappally Krishi Bhavan and Athma in his farm. The big churches in Kerala reflects the connection between the East and West very early before British arrival in India. Kerala produces 97% of the national output of black pepper and accounts for 85% of the natural rubber in the country. Pepper cultivation had been spread in 44,908 hectares of land in the 2001-02 period in the State and annual production was 17,915 tonnes against 36,488 hectares and 9,828 respectively in 2005-06. Biju Narayanan, returned to farming 10 years ago after working as a mechanical engineer for some years. 15,095 lakhs to many countries which accounted 6 per cent earning of exports in spices. 92 per cent), Indonesia (1. Pepper which is called as the King of Spices is native to India. In fact, Kerala contributes 97 per cent of the total black pepper production in the country. Black pepper growing on the vinew in Kerala. Black pepper originate in Kerala. Trading of this spice-pepper also known as 'Black Gold' was a major business from ancient times. Wayand district has second position with 10% area to the total. Agriculture contributes 17% towards the nation's Gross Value Added (GVA). The bush pepper is also a hit among the farmers not only. The data reached an all-time high of 42. INDOCERT certified organic cultivation is adopted by our society which ensures that we never use any chemical fertilizer and pesticides to ensure nature conservation of Attappady hills. Land in western ghat region is suitable for Pepper Cultivation with Kerala alone accounting for 95% of the production in India. UDF to bring out white paper to expose Kerala's poor finances: Chennithala NRI Sajen's dream venture gets civic nod nearly a month after his suicide Five more cops likely to be arrested over Kumar's custody death. Pepper is a vine that trails on a support, or standards. th century, pepper production increased dramatically as new plantations were founded in Thailand, Vietnam, China and Sri Lanka. During the period of 2015-16 the margin has increased, as the Pepper production in Kerala declined to 26000 tons, while production in Karnataka remained the same. Devastating floods of August have wiped out 30% of the spice production in Kerala, resulting in a loss of Rs. Seeds are sown in the nursery and one-month-old seedlings are transplanted to the main field. In the spice plantations in Munnar, the spices grown include ginger, cardamom, vanilla, clove, nutmeg, peppar and garlic. 470 Ton th in 2017. Farmers in districts like Alleppey, Idukki, Malappuram and Wayanad have reported a near wipe-out of crops such as coconut, pepper, areca nut, banana and cocoa in the torrential monsoon rains in August 2018 and subsequent flooding and landslides that left nearly 400 dead, thousands of homes destroyed and countless displaced in the state. Our mission is to produce quality, pesticide free spices. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Lire la suite . 15,095 lakhs to many countries which accounted 6 per cent earning of exports in spices. Pepper Strengths Kerala accounts for 98% of the national area under Pepper, the king of spices. 9 Area under Pepper Cultivation The area under pepper cultivation in Kerala in 2005-06 stood at 2,37,998 hectares. Since the past few years, India's rise has been on full swing in terms of export of black pepper. How to Grow a Black Pepper Plant. Pepper fruit, also known as the peppercorn,. Land in western ghat region is suitable for Pepper Cultivation with Kerala alone accounting for 95% of the production in India. The area under spice cultivation in Kerala has declined from 2,58,932 hectare in 2008, but the production has increased from 1,27,534 tonnes in the last four years. Tea gardens and tea cultivation in colonial times by British settlers of Kerala were introduced, when he found that temperature and hill ranges of Kerala's land suitable for cultivation of tea were the conditions. The potable pepper can be grown either in a pot or in a PVC pipe to the much relief of those who do not have enough land to do farming. In high altitude areas, dadap (E. Business listings of Black Pepper manufacturers, suppliers and exporters in Idukki, Kerala along with their contact details & address. Banana's are deeply linked with the traditional culture of Kerala. Traditionally, pepper is grown as intercrop in plantations or homesteads,. in Chapter 12 Dr N. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Lire la suite . If you liked this article, you might also enjoy our new popular podcast, The BrainFood Show (iTunes, Spotify, Google Play Music, Feed), as well as: Why Peppers Taste Hot. Kerala India Fax: +91 0484 331429 E-mail: mail@indianspices. Paddy cultivation in Kerala has witnessed a steady decline since the 1980s. Kerala was known for its spices and traders travelled here to trade and to gain control over this rich land. Discover the hotel's highlights and local activities. He expects a yield of two quintals of pepper from 37 vines planted two. Farm wholesale prices of important. It is recommended that you follow their recipes directly to ensure an end result that is safe for consumption. Mallappally: John George, a farmer in Mallappally, is doing great in pepper farming. At an average height of 3500 feet, the estate is the largest perennial multi-crop Organic Farm in India,growing certified , Organic Tea, Coffee (Arabica and Robusta ) with. Key industry sectors include education and healthcare services. INDIA'S government has approved a plan to rejuvenate pepper orchards in the Idukki district of Kerala over the course of the next five years in an attempt to reverse declining production. Pepper which is called as the King of Spices is native to India. Cultivation of pepper. Akhila1 and Aswathy Asokan1 1Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram 695 522, Kerala, India 2Farming System Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, Sadanandapuram,. They occur in the moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests of Kerala state. “How will this guide help me with poultry farming in Kerala?” If you are living in Kerala and are already involved in poultry farming…this business plan could help you grow or expand. 9 Area under Pepper Cultivation The area under pepper cultivation in Kerala in 2005-06 stood at 2,37,998 hectares. km with the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea bordering it. Peppercorn is native to the tropical evergreen rain forest of South Indian Kerala state, from where it spread to rest of the world through Indian and Arab traders. We wanted a pet for our warehouse and he is a staff favorite. You can head to any of the factories around town and be privy to the production and cultivation of various tea and coffee varieties. Feel free to give us a call (Monday-Friday 8 A. A pepper tree branch in kerala india. Tea of various types and quality are also available here. Cultivation of pepper as a pure crop is also practiced though it is becoming rare. Apart from Wayanad of Kerala, the project will be implemented in the Northern States such as Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Manipur. classifications), area under crops, crop production, yield rate, irrigation statistics, comparative study of important crops in Kerala for the year 2001-02 & 2016-17, block-wise area and production of important crops etc. The pepper heartland of Wayanad in Kerala is expecting a surge in its pepper productivity through a special model. From other states huge domestic tourists arrive in. 19 hectares (135,454 acres) of land. A study by State Planning Board reveals that while the area under vegetable cultivation was 42,477 hectares in 2012-13, it has more than doubled to 90,533 hectares. In India, Pepper is commonly cultivated as "homestead cultivation" growing it as a secondary crop interspersed with several other crops. Having 5 pots of baby pepper will give enough pepper for a household's requirements. A Kerala Houseboats cruise along the palm-fringed waterways of Kerala in luxury houseboats is the most enchanting holiday experience in India today. com spicesboard@vsnl. Kerala – Key industry facts Leads in the production of pepper, natural rubber, coconut, tea, and spices in India The state receives the highest overseas. Kerala cultivates 1,62,660 hectares of spices crops with an annual production of 1,40,000 tonnes out of which Idukki and Wayanad account for 62% of the spice cultivation. Find here Black Pepper suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, traders with Black Pepper prices for buying. These spices are directly procured from farmers those who are not using any kind chemical fertilizers in their farming activities. India‟s prime position in the production and export of black pepper and cardamom has now been usurped by Vietnam and Guatemala respectively. As a mixed crop, it is grown with arecanut, coconut, mango, jack etc. Kerala is known as the land of spices as it has the perfect climate to support the cultivation of spices like pepper, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, turmeric etc. Thomas and Dr P. But farmers in Wayanad are more into Coffee and Tea plantations cuddled with Pepper trails. Image Source - Incredible India. Pepper is the principal crop in the district (82316 ha). Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. [226] [227] Coconut , tea , coffee , cashew , and spices—including cardamom, vanilla , cinnamon , and nutmeg are the main agricultural products. accounts for almost bulk of the production of pepper, the performance of this crop in India is often treated as synonymous with its performance in Kerala. Before The Reluctant Trading Experiment, I didn't know a Tellicherry peppercorn from a telephone pole. Since the market for organic pepper is still quite nascent in Kerala, he adds that they don’t rake in bumper returns through sales at open markets but earn enough to feed his family and take good care of his farm and its beings. The sprawling plantations of coffee, tea, cardamom, pepper and rubber make Wayanad a place worth visiting while on a Kerala Tour. Paper ID: NOV161057 594. The bush pepper is also a hit among the farmers not only. Kerala plans to have a scientific transition to organic and natural farming from the present chemical farming. com offers 102 pepper production in kerala products. India Black Pepper Production in 2015 - 2016 is expected around 80,000 Metric Tons. But the actual quantity may well be much less as production in Karnataka and Kerala, two key pepper producing states. Jiji 1,*, C. Black Pepper is the dried mature berry of Piper nigrum, a climbing, perennial shrub mostly found in hot, moist region of Southern India. Establishment of International pepper exchange at Mattancherry, Kerala in 1997. Kerala's road density is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population density. 1,254 crore, reveals a field study conducted by ICAR-IISR. Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands (rugged and cool mountainous terrain), the central midlands (rolling hills), and the western lowlands (coastal plains). The entire area is under cultivation with high yielding Njallani cardamom variety and with pepper and coffee as intercrop. OLX offers many other services in Properties like; shops & offices for sale, house for rent, house for sale, house rentals, apartment for sale and rental classifieds. Majority of these are in remote villages and 95 per cent of the growers belong to scheduled tribe(ST). Kerala is the “gateway of the monsoon” to the country and is also one of the wet places in the humid tropics. Written by Patricia Rain on July 2, 2009. Area, Production and Productivity of Pepper in India (1970-1971 to 2018-2019-1st Advance Estimates) Area, Production and Productivity of Black Pepper in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu (2016-2017 and 2017-2018) Selected State-wise Area, Production and Productivity of Black Pepper in India (2013-2014 to 2015-2016). The average productivity is 327 kg/ha. Black pepper cultivation in Kerala. Some capsicums house a "baby" bell pepper growing inside of it: this smaller pepper is not only edible, but delightfully sweet. You are here: Home » Positive News » Kerala Farmer Reaps Gold From Black Pepper plus approach June 7, 2019 Positive News 0 At 2,230 feet above sea level, there is little chance that you will come across an organic farm, let alone a thriving food forest. ICEX to allow trading in pepper, cardamom | News. You can head to any of the factories around town and be privy to the production and cultivation of various tea and coffee varieties. This stayed constant from the previous number of 500. Though most parts of central Kerala witnessed moderate rainfalls in the subsequent one week, the water woes in Neelamperoor village panchayat, located between Kottayam and Alapuzha towns, continue unabated. Question 80 Kerala is famous for the cultivation of 1. The birth of Kampot pepper. Black pepper is cultivated quite extensively throughout India, now-a-days. During the civil war in the 1970s, pepper growing was abandoned. George Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Black Pepper is the dried mature berry of Piper nigrum, a climbing, perennial shrub mostly found in hot, moist region of Southern India. If you love your morning brew, then Kerala has something special in store for you! Stock up on your supply of tea and coffee when visiting the hilly regions of Kerala. Wayand district has second position with 10% area to the total. At Pepper Joe's we get calls all the time from Nurseries and Retail Farms about growing Super Hot Peppers. The village is 14 km from Ernakulam Railway Station. The hot and humid climate of sub mountainous tracts of Western Ghats is ideal for its cultivation. Try growing cayenne peppers (Capsicum annuum 'Cayenne'). Climate trends in Kerala. The specialty of this variety is that its spikes are fully branched while other pepper varieties are single spiked without branches. Wayanadan Pepper is very famous in the world of spices and it finds a good market both in India and abroad. Agriculture plays a vital role in Indian economy, about 54. In India, Pepper is commonly cultivated as "homestead cultivation" growing it as a secondary crop interspersed with several other crops. Black pepper originated in Kerala. You can go for nature walks, bird watching treks, taste the various spices and breathe in the fragrant air while exploring the spice plantation in Wayanad. Setting the Record Straight on Tellicherry. The major cultivation in Kerala is spices and rubber. Pepper, cardamom, beetle nuts etc are the major spices produced in Kerala. The agro climatic conditions in Kerala suite the cultivation of a variety of seasonal and perennial crops. Pepper Thekken Nursery Kattappana Idukki. It is recommended that you follow their recipes directly to ensure an end result that is safe for consumption. Each order is custom grown and shipped to arrive on the date you request during checkout. Black pepper is native to Kerala in Southwestern India and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Kerala itself produces 90% off total production of black pepper. Wayanad is lavishly blessed with such a climate in which any crop can breed and grow. A Quantitative Description of Pepper Cultivation in Kerala In India, Kerala is the largest producer of pepper, accounting over 50 per cent of India's total output followed by Karnataka and Tamilnadu. Climate trends in Kerala. com Chapter 11 Dr J. Munnar tea museum you can trace out the history and production of tea with old machinery, photographs & demonstrations. From other states huge domestic tourists arrive in. CROP HUSBANDRY-COCONUT CULTIVATION PRACTICES IN KE. Keeping in view these aspects, the paper attempts to compute the cost of cultivation of cardamom and to analyse the relative profitability and export competitiveness of cardamom cultivation in Kerala. 700+ species of forest trees out of 806 species found in Kerala. The specialty of this variety is that its spikes are fully branched while other pepper varieties are single spiked without branches. are suitable standards for growing pepper. Cultivation of pepper as a pure crop is also practiced though it is becoming rare. It was our first experience of home stay, and pepper County sets the bar very high! A large and comfortable en-suite bedroom, and excellent, freshly cooked meals, served by the in-house staff. 64 per cent among black pepper producing countries of world followed by Vietnam (2. Wayand district has second position with 10% area to the total. Which is normally dried and used as a spice, medicine and seasoning. Its equable climate and unique geographical positions has helped it become the de facto exporter of spices in the State. Cayenne pepper plants are also known as guinea spice, cow horn peppers, aleva or bird peppers, but are more commonly referred to as red pepper in its powdered form and used to flavor food in a variety of cuisines and medicinally. Mallappally: John George, a farmer in Mallappally, is doing great in pepper farming. Kerala is the "gateway of the monsoon" to the country and is also one of the wet places in the humid tropics. Kerala Holiday Packages from other States. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu are the other major pepper producing States in the country. You can go for nature walks, bird watching treks, taste the various spices and breathe in the fragrant air while exploring the spice plantation in Wayanad. The other important cultivars are Kottanadan, Narayakkodi, Aimpiriyan, Neelamundi, Kuthiravally, Balancotta, Kalluvally, Malligesara and Uddagare. In Kampot, the modern era of intensive pepper production can be traced back to the 1870s. We saw them in several spots in the area - in the wild in Periyar, in spice plantations and as an extra crop wrapped around the shade. 3 per cent of total pepper production during 2010-11. What is the Best Fertilizer for Pepper Plants. Kerala is known as the spice capital of India, Here is the list of Indian spices found and grown in Kerala, especially in Kozhikode, the City of Spices of Kerala. The main reason for the poor productivity of pepper in Kerala is that most of the vines are too old and infested with pests and diseases. at Sultan Batheri was inaugurated by the Kerala State Minister for Agriculture, Shri. Planting of pepper cuttings in coconut gardens. Unit 2 Organic farming and certification (55 periods) Concept - importance with reference to global scenario – scope in Kerala – organic farming. Media in category "Pepper of Kerala" The following 23 files are in this category, out of 23 total. India and Indonesia together produce about half of the pepper traded in the world markets. Kerala by far is the most important pepper producing state in India, cultivation being concentrated in Kannur, Kottayam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kozhikode and Ernakulam districts. Place puree in saucepan and add basil, sugar, salt and pepper. nigrum crop as of 2013. Piper nigrum is native to South India, loves the hot tropics and has been in cultivation for over 2,000 years. From export to natural disaster, cardamom cultivation in Kerala has fallen on hard times. Mallappally: John George, a farmer in Mallappally, is doing great in pepper farming. miscellaneous: commercial production commenced: hvac filters - all types of filters for hvac & gas turbines,semi finished filters- non assembled filters ( filter media and frames seperate),single pockets- welded pockets made up of nonwoven filter media,filter media rolls - either ultrasonically welded or nonwelded type non woven filter media rolls,plastic frames - plastic frames for filters. During the civil war in the 1970s, pepper growing was abandoned.